And I thought some of you dearling ladies would also like to have this info in a handy spot, too.
MEASURING EQUIVALENTS3 teaspoons = 1 Tablespoon
2 T = 1/8 Cup
5 T + 1 t = 1/3 C.
8 T = 1/2 C.
10 T + 2 t = 2/3 C.
12 T = 3/4 C.
16 T = 1 C.
1 C = 8 fluid ounces (oz)
2 C = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 C = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon
16 oz = 1 pound (lb)
CANDY MAKING TEMPERATURESStage of Candy Temperature (F*)
Soft ball 234-240
Firm ball 244-248
Hard ball 250-266
Soft crack 270-290
Hard crack 300-310
Light caramel 320-338
Medium caramel 338-350
Dark caramel 350-360
Ingredient Needed Likely Candidates
Allspice (1 tsp) 2/3 tsp cinnamon + 1/3 tsp cloves
Baking powder (1 tsp) 1 tsp baking soda + 1/2 tsp cream of tartar
Bread crumbs Equal amount of cracker or cornflake crumbs
Butter Equal amount of margarine
Cream cheese Part-skim ricotta cheese OR low-fat cottage cheese - beaten smooth
Chicken/Beef broth (1 C) 1 bouillon cube in 1 C boiling water
Chives, chopped minced scallion tops
Chocolate, 1 square, unsw 3 T. unsweetened cocoa + 1 T melted butter
Chocolate, 1 square, semi 3 T. unsweetened cocoa, 2 T. melted butter + 3 T. sugar
Cornstarch (1 T) 2 T. flour OR 4 tsp quick-cooking tapioca
Dates or currants Dark raisins
Flour, self-rising 1 C. all-purpose flour + 1 1/2 tsp baking powder & 1/2 tsp salt
Gelatin (3 oz pkg) flavored 1 T. plain gelatin + 2 C fruit juice
Honey (1 C) 1 1/4 C suar + 1/4 C water
Ketchup or chili sauce 1/3 C. tomato sauce, 2 T sugar + 1 T vinegar
Shallots plain white onion OR white part of scallions
Sour cream equal amount of plain yogurt
Sugar (1 C) 1 C. light brown sugar (packed) OR 2 C. powdered sugar
Sugar, Brown (1 C) 3/4 C. white sugar + 1/4 C molasses
Tomato juice (1 C) 1/2 C. tomato sauce + 1/2 C. water
Vinegar (1 tsp) 2 tsp lemon juice
Called Age/Info Generally Weighs What to Do With It
Broiler or Fryer young bird 2-4 lbs Roast whole, broil split halves,
loose joints fried pieces
Roaster young bird 3-5 lbs or more Roast, grill, smoke whole or parts,
loose joints, fatty fry up or bake the pieces
Capon "fixed" cockerel 4-10 lbs Roast whole or cook parts (above)
Stewing Hen old bird 4-7 lbs Stew, braise, boil; flavorful broth;
"Spent" tough joints chix & dumplings
Cornish Hen small birds 1-3 lbs Roast whole, one per person
Bake: cook in a heated oven; AKA "roasting" if applied to meat or veggies
Baste: moisten food while cooking; spoon up the fat or liquid and dribble over the meat
Beat: make the mixture smooth using a mixer, hand beater or spoon; lift mixture rapidly over and over; tilt the bowl if working by hand, bringing bottom to top and top to bottom; mix evenly
Blanch: dip into boiling water, then immediately into cold, icy water; to remove skins
Blend: combine two or more ingredients until very smooth
Boil: cook in bubbling liquid; bubbles constantly rise and break on surface; once it boils, lower the temp just enough to keep bubbles bursting--slow boil
Braise: brown meat in a little hot fat, on all sides; then cover and simmer over low heat until tender
Broil: cook under the heat of a broiler or hot coals, often between two heated surfaces
Chill: place in fridge or freezer to bring down temp (do NOT do this with feverish children!)
Coat: Sprinkle with or roll in flour, sugar until coated; can also shake in a bag (paper or plastic)
Cool: let stand at room temp until no longer warm to touch
Cream: With spoon or mixer/beater, work or rub softened shortening or butter with sugar (usually) against the sides of the bowl until very creamy.
Cube: cut into 1/2-inch cubes
Cut-in: usually shortening (butter or margarine), use a pastry cutter utensil to blend shortening with flour or flour mixture until particles are of the desired size (often "pea" size); without a pastry cutter use two table knives--one in each hand--to cut shortening into smaller and smaller pieces with the flour. Get a pastry blender, it's MUCH easier. Important for pie crusts!
Deep fry: heat oil to desired temp; drop coated meat or veggie into hot oil; fry as needed; remove with tongs to paper toweling; use a kitchen thermometer to be sure of temp.
Dice: cut into very small cubes (1/4-inch); smaller than "cube"
Dissolve: Mix dry substance with liquid until incorporated.
Dot: scatter small bits of butter over the surface of a casserole or pie
Double boiler: two pans nested together, bottom pan has water in it--that should NOT touch the top pan's bottom; top pan has food item in it (usually something that is persnickety about being heated--like chocolate); cook over hot or boiling water as recipe directs.
Dredge: Coat or drag item in flour, sugar, mixture (can often just put in a bag and shake it, too).
Fold: combine a light (airy) mixture with a heavier one (egg whites with custard); use a rubber spatula or a wire wipe or spoon; evenly combined--but kept light and airy!
Grate: rub on a grater to produce fine, medium or coarse particles
Grease: rub a pan lightly with butter or oil
Grind: run item through a meat grinder (you can also use an electric chopper or food processor)
Julienne: vegetables cut into thin matchsticks; used for stir-fries or salads
Knead: mix dough into a pliable lump; use your floured hands OR a dough hook on your mixer.
Marinade: liquid used for marinaTing (d vs t); flavors and sometimes tenderizes meat
Melt: place item in small bowl or custard cup over hot water (not boiling) OR in a saucepan at lowest heat or PREFERABLY in the microwave with small time segments
Mince: cut food into very tiny pieces (smaller than "chopped")
Pan-broil: cook, uncovered in ungreased or lightly greased hot skillet, pouring off fat as it accumulates.
Pan-fry: cook in small amount of hot fat in skillet
Par-boil (partially boil): boil in water or other liquid until partially cooked, preliminary to another form of cooking, usually.
Pare: with a knife or peeler, remove outer covering or skin (apples)
Peel: pull off outer covering (bananas or oranges)
Pit: remove the seed or pit (avocados or prunes)
Preheat: turn on the oven to the desired temp BEFORE putting food in
Puree: (pronouced "pure-aaay") press mixture through a sieve or food mill; blended very smooth and lump-free
Reduce: cook slowly so liquid evaporates and intensifies the flavors
Saute: ("saw-tay") cook quickly in small amount of fat or oil in a frying pan or skillet
Scald: dip fruits or vegetables (peaches or tomatoes) into lightly boiling water for ONE MINUTE OR LESS to facilitate peeling/removing skins (I also dip them immediately into very cold water to stop the cooking process)
Scallop: bake in layers with a sauce; often topped with crumbs
Score: with a knife or fork, make shallow hashes, slits or gashes across the surface of a meat or vegetable
Sear: brown briefly over very or just high heat to lock in those juices
Season: add or sprinkle with salt or herbs, to taste
Sift: put dry ingredients (flour, sugar, cornmeal, etc) through a flour sifter or fine sieve
Simmer: cook in a liquid, gentle bubbles along edges of the pan
Singe: hold poultry over heat/flame to burn off any hairs; use a match or lighter or gas flame--just BE CAREFUL!!!
Skewer: hold meat pieces or veggies or fruit in place by means of metal or wooden sticks
Skim: remove a layer of fat from gravy; spoon it off while hot OR chill the item--the fat will harden and can be taken off in one piece
Sliver: cut or split into long, thin pieces
Steam: cook in steam, usually in a basket above the liquid
Steep: let stand in hot liquid
Stir: mix with a spoon, in a circular motion by hand--not as much as blending, not as "hard" as beating; until all ingredients are well mixed
Thicken: measure liquid to be thickened; for every cup-ful, mix 1 1/2 T flour with 3 T water until smooth; stir this paste into the hot liquid, cook until desired thickness.
Toast: brown in a broiler, oven, toaster or over hot coals
Toss: mix lightly with two forks or fork & spoon; gently, gently so as not to crush tender items
Whip: Beat rapidly to incorporate air and increase volume, by hand or with an electric mixer
Truss: to tie with twine or skewers to help chicken or other meat hold its shape during cooking or roasting